4000 Level Courses

Information on 4000-level History courses

4th year courses are restricted to 4th year (84+ credits) Honours students.

  • The AP/History Department offers two types of 4000-level courses: seminars and colloquia.  Seminars (HIST 4XXX) normally enrol about 18 students and have a substantial research component. Colloquia (HIST 40XX) normally enrol 30 students.
  • 4000-level History courses taken at Glendon Campus will count as seminars if they have planned enrolments of fewer than 20 students

AP/HIST 4000 6.0A: Honours Essay

The course is normally open only to majors of exceptional ability (defined as a B+ or higher average in History). It counts as a seminar.

Students must apply for permission to do an Honours Essay by submitting at the beginning of Fall Term a formal letter to the Department Chair accompanied by written recommendations from two Department faculty members. The letter should outline the relevant course work that has prepared the student for an Honours Essay, the primary and secondary research that will be undertaken (including a bibliography), and the schedule of work. The letter should also indicate which Department faculty member will supervise the student’s work and which Department faculty member is suggested as second reader. The faculty recommenders may serve as supervisor and second reader. Students are responsible for finding Department faculty members willing to serve as supervisor and suggested second reader. The second reader is officially appointed at the discretion of the Chair.

The following timetable is recommended:

  • 15 November: Detailed Outline
  • 1 December: Progress Report
  • 15 February: First Draft
  • 30 March: Submission Deadline

The Honours Essay must be submitted to the supervisor and second reader by 30 March. A bound copy on 8 1/2" x 11" white bond paper must also be submitted to the Chair of the Department by 30 March. The copy will be retained by the Department. Normally, the essay will be between 70 and 125 double-spaced pages, although shorter essays may be acceptable depending on the type of research undertaken.
The Honours Essay will be read by both the supervisor and the second reader. The grading of the essay will be based on the following categories:

A+     excellent
A        superior
B+     very good
B        good
C+     acceptable honors
C        acceptable non-honors
D        poor
F        failure

Should the grades assigned by the supervisor and the second reader not differ by more than one category (e.g., B and B+), the higher grade will stand. When there is a discrepancy of two or more grades assigned by the supervisor and the second reader (e.g., A and B), a third reader will be appointed by the Chair. In such instances the grade for the essay will be the average of the two highest grades.

Along with the grade assigned for the essay, the supervisor and second reader will submit a brief written report that comments on the content, style, organization, and originality of the essay. The Chair reserves the right to require an oral examination on the essay. In such instances, the examining board will comprise of the supervisor, the second reader, and a third person appointed by the Chair. The final course grade will be decided by these three persons. Examiners will submit their reports to the Chair within two weeks.

Students may take AP/HIST 4000 6.0 with instructors in whose fourth-year seminar they are enrolled. In such cases, it is understood that the seminar and the Honours Essay course are separate, each with its own requirements.

 

 

AP/HIST 4122 6.0A: War and Society in Ancient Greece

(Crosslisted to: AP/CLST 4122 6.00)

THIS COURSE WILL BE TAUGHT ONLINE (ASYNCHRONOUSLY) AND REMOTELY (SYNCHRONOUSLY)

Course Director:  J. Trevett, jtrevett@yorku.ca

Course Calendar Description:  This course examines the phenomenon of war in ancient Greece, with particular emphasis on its social impact, concentrating on the late Archaic and Classical periods (650-338 BC). This course is restricted to History, Classical Studies or Hellenic Studies Honours majors and minors who have successfully completed at least 84 credits. Prerequisites: AP/HIST 2100 6.00 or AP/HUMA 3100 6.00 or AP/HUMA 3102 3.00 or AP/HUMA 3104 6.00 or AP/HUMA 3105 6.00 or AP/HUMA 3110 6.00 AND AP/HIST 3120 6.00 or AP/HIST 3125 3.00 or AP/HIST 3130 6.00 or AP/HIST 3131 6.00 or AP/HIST 3135 3.00 or AP/HIST 3140 3.00 or AP/HIST 3150 6.00 or AP/HIST 3152 6.00 or AP/HIST 3153 6.00 or AP/HIST 3154 3.00 or AP/HIST 3160 6.00 or departmental permission. Course credit exclusions: None. PRIOR TO FALL 2009: Course credit exclusion: AS/HIST 4122 6.00.

Expanded Course Description: This course will focus on the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta (432-404 BC) and on the contemporary Greek historian Thucydides’ account of the war. Attention will also be paid to other literature of the period  (comedy, tragedy, speeches, philosophical dialogues) and to archaeological and documentary evidence.

Tentative Grade Breakdown/Overview of Assessment:
Two shorter essays in Fall Term: 30%
Research paper in Winter Term: 40%
Shorter weekly assignments (reading responses, quizzes, short presentations, etc.): 30%.

AP/HIST 4130 6.0A: Problems in Roman History

THIS COURSE WILL BE TAUGHT REMOTELY

Course Director: J. Edmondson, jedmond@yorku.ca

[DOWNLOAD DRAFT SYLLABUS]

Course Calendar Description:  Selected topics in one or more areas of concentration in the history of ancient Rome.

Prerequisites: AP/HIST 2100 6.00 or AP/HUMA 3104 6.00 or AP/HUMA 3106 6.00 or AP/HUMA 3110 6.00 AND AP/HIST 3120 6.00 or AP/HIST 3125 3.00 or AP/HIST 3130 6.00 or AP/HIST 3131 6.00 or AP/HIST 3135 3.00 or AP/HIST 3140 3.00 or AP/HIST 3150 6.00 or AP/HIST 3152 6.00 or AP/HIST 3154 3.00 or AP/HIST 3160 6.00 or departmental permission.
Note: Priority is given to History, Classical Studies or Hellenic Studies Honours majors and minors who have successfully completed at least 84 credits.

PRIOR  TO FALL 2009: Course credit exclusion: AS/HIST 4130 6.00.

Expanded Course Description:  The seminar engages in an in-depth analysis of a pivotalperiod in Roman history, 31 BC–AD 14, when Julius Caesar’s heir, the man who from 27 BC onwards was known as Augustus (in full, ‘Imperator [Commander] Caesar Augustus son of the Deified One’), gradually crafted a new political system at Rome after emerging victorious from fifteen years of bloody civil warthat embroiled the whole of the Roman world, and beyond. His task was to reunify the ‘Roman Republic’ and ensure that the new, autocratic regime proved sufficiently palatable to the key sectorsof Roman society: the senatorial elite, municipal elites in Italy and the provinces(the domi nobiles), ordinary Roman citizens, the army, and provincial subjects across the Empire. The seminarwill explore the ways in which he sought to build that consensus: his devising of a political system that proved acceptable to most; his use of images, monuments, ritual, and literature to boost his own authority and acceptability; his radical redesign of the city of Rome, making it a worthy imperial capital; his programme of social and moral reform; a series of overseas conquests of his armies that brought more territory than even before under Roman control and boosted Rome’s prestige; and his reforms of provincial administration to ensure the fiscal stability of his new regime. We will also take account at protests and opposition to what he was trying to achieve. In the seminar, we shall read critically a selection of the most important primary source material for Augustus’achievements –historical accounts of his reign(esp. Suetonius, Tacitus, Cassius Dio), selections from literature of the Augustan period (Vergil, Livy, Horace, Propertius, Ovid), inscriptions(including Augustus’ own Res Gestae), portraits and sculpture, architectural complexes in Rome and elsewhere, coins, and archaeological and iconographic evidence–and some of the rich scholarly discussions of Augustus, to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the varied interpretations that his principate continues to elicit.

Method of Course Delivery: This course will be offered remotely in 2020-21 with weekly real-time discussion sessions held using ZOOM on a weekly basis within the official course timeblock: Fridays, 11.30 a.m. and 2.30 p.m. Brief introductions to each week’s material will be pre-recorded and made accessible via the Course Moodle site well in advance of the discussion sessions. All course components will be completed remotely or online.

Tentative Grade Breakdown/Overview of Assessment:
Please see syllabus above for more details

Primary Source Analysis - Due 30 October - 15%
Research Proposal and Bibliography - Due 20 November - 10%
Analysis of an Article or Book Chapter - Due 4 December - 15%
Brief Presentation of Research Project (Powerpoint or Short Video - Due 26 Feb. - 2 April  (Depending on Date of Presentation) - 10%
Major Paper - 9 April - 40%
Brief Weekly Reading Responses - Throughout the Course - 10%

 

AP/HIST 4200 6.0A (FALL): Culture and Society in Medieval Europe

THIS COURSE WILL BE TAUGHT REMOTELY IN REAL-TIME (SYNCHRONOUSLY)

Course Director:  R. Koopmans, koopmans@yorku.ca

[VIEW COURSE VIDEO]

Course Calendar Description:  Relationships between important works of medieval literature and the society that produced them. This course is restricted to History or European Studies Honours majors and minors who have successfully completed at least 84 credits. Prerequisites: AP/HIST 2220 6.00 or AP/HIST 2790 6.00 or AP/HIST 3212 6.00 or AP/HIST 3234 6.00 or AP/HIST 3255 6.00 or AP/HIST 3280 6.00 or AP/HIST 3809 6.00 or AP/HUMA 3780 6.00 or AP/HUMA 4680 3.00 AP/HUMA 4680 6.00 or departmental permission.

Tentative Grade Breakdown/Overview of Assessment:
Class participation, attendance and discussion: 20%
Reading responses, 20%
Major research project, 60% (broken up into proposal 10%, notes 10%, first draft 10%, presentation 5%, final draft 25%)

Students should note that this is a 6.0 credit course offered in a single term, with two seminar meetings a week.

AP/HIST 4350 6.0A: European Thought in Crisis: The Shape of European Thought in the Early 20th Century

Course Director:  A. Haberman, arthurhaberman1@gmail.com

Course Calendar Description: The transformation of basic assumptions in several intellectual and aesthetic disciplines in European thought from 1870 through the First World War. Prerequisites: AP/HIST 1060 6.00 or AP/HIST 2300 6.00 or AP/HIST 2400 6.00 or AP/HIST 3300 6.00 or AP/HIST 3311 3.00 or AP/HIST 3315 3.00 or AP/HIST 3320 6.00 or AP/HIST 3365 3.00 or AP/HIST 3385 3.00 or AP/HIST 3480 6.00 or departmental permission. Open to: This course is restricted to History Honours majors and minors who have successfully completed at least 84 credits.

Tentative Grade Breakdown/Overview of Assessment: TBA

AP/HIST 4375 6.0A: Topics in Modern Greek History

THIS COURSE WILL BE TAUGHT REMOTELY IN REAL TIME

Course Director:  A. Gekas, agekas@yorku.ca

[VIEW COURSE TRAILER]

[DOWNLOAD DRAFT SYLLABUS]

Course Calendar Description:  This course examines on a rotating basis key topics in the history of Modern Greece. Please consult the history supplemental calendar for more details. This course is restricted to History Honours majors and minors who have successfully completed at least 84 credits. Prerequisites: AP/HIST 2300 6.00 or AP/HIST 3355 6.00 or AP/HIST 3385 3.00 or departmental permission. Course credit exclusions: None. PRIOR TO FALL 2009: Course credit exclusion: AS/HIST 4375 6.00.

Expanded Course Description:  The seminar focuses on the Greek war of independence in the 1820sto train history students in the study and research of liberal revolutions of the nineteenth century. The course firstly provides an introduction to the methodology of global history and its implications for the study of the age of revolutions. Second, it offers a thematic and comparative analysis of the shared features of the revolutions around the world and especially in the Mediterranean, by looking at uprisings in Portugal, Spain, the Italian peninsula,Sicily and Greece in the 1820s:the role of the army in revolutionary wars,the relationship between religion and revolutionary ideologies, counter-revolutionary culture, secret societies),the interconnections and exchanges during the revolutions, the mobility of volunteers, travelers, information and ideas between the revolutions, and from Northern Europe and other continents in the Mediterranean and from there to North Europe and the Americas.The course will discuss a macro-historical approach to the history of revolutions, such as the causes and impact of the revolutions, and a micro-historical approach, namely, the mobility of individuals and the circulation of political ideas in the age of revolutions. Much more than a history of nationalism and revolution the course will familiarize students to various approaches,and train them in the study of primary sources and the writing of research-based papers.We will also discuss and reflect on the Greek revolution in the 1820s as an opportunity to examine the emergence of nationalism, national independence movements during the age of revolutions (1770s-1830s)and the commemoration of such events;2021 marks the 200-year anniversary of the Greek Revolution of 1821 and the course will reflect on how the commemoration of the event has changed over time among Greeks around the world,in Greece but also among Greek communities abroad, such as in Canada.

Method of Course Delivery:  This course will be offered Monday 14:30 –17:30 on ZOOM remotely, synchronous, in real-time seminars,with all information, assignment guidelines, discussions and other important information posted on the class Moodle site. I will host live office hours/discussion on Tuesdays between 10:00-11:30 via zoom, but attendance at the live sessions is not mandatory.

Tentative Grade Breakdown/Overview of Assessment:
Primary Source Analysis (due September 30th): 10%
Chapter or Article Review (due October 31st): 10%
Essay 1 (due end of Fall Term): 30%
Presentation of Research Project (due end of February): 10%
Primary Source Analysis (due March 15): 10%
Major Project (due April 9): 30%

AP/HIST 4508 6.0A: Cultures and Colonialism: Canada, 1600-1900

THIS COURSE WILL BE TAUGHT REMOTELY IN REAL TIME (SYNCHRONOUSLY)

Course Director:  A. Corbiere, ojiigcor@yorku.ca

[DOWNLOAD DRAFT SYLLABUS]

Course Calendar Description: Explores issues of contact and colonialism in Canadian history from 1600 - 1900. Themes may include the shifting practices of European imperialism; new cultural forms created by First Nations-European contact; changing economic systems; and patterns of state formation. Prerequisites: AP/HIST 1035 6.00 or AP/HIST 1050 6.00 or AP/HIST 1086 6.00 or AP/HIST 2500 6.00 or AP/CDNS 2200 6.00 or AP/HIST 3546 6.00 or AP/HIST 3550 6.00 or AP/HIST 3581 6.00 or AP/MIST 1050 6.00 or by departmental permission. Open to: This course is restricted to History or Canadian Studies Honours majors and minors who have successfully completed at least 84 credits.

Expanded Course Description:  This course seeks to interrogate the relationship between cultures and colonialism between 1600 – 1900 from an Indigenous perspective. Since the 1970s, historians have tried to be more sensitive to Indigenous views, mainly by asking more sophisticated questions about archival and documentary sources. Many historians continue to use tried and tested conventional colonial records but many have also adopted an ‘Indigenous perspective’ to write Indigenous history – this concept will be explored throughout the course. Readings have been selected that explore various means of colonization such as exploration, conflict, trade, religion, missionization, literacy, artifact collection, and treaties, with the intent to explore Indigenous peoples’ response thus investigating their culture. The people covered in this course are principally from the northeast of North America, mainly Anishinaabe (Ojibwe, Odawa, Potowatomi, Mississauga and Algonquin), Huron (Wendat, Petun), Mohawk, and later in the course the Métis.

Method of Course Delivery: Delivered online synchronously every week, meaning that we will meet on zoom for the seminar. Course information (readings, assignments, important dates, etc) is housed on Moodle. Assignments are to be handed in via Moodle.

Tentative Grade Breakdown/Overview of Assessment:
Web Site Review: 15%
Book Review: 15%
Active History Research Essay (in stages): 40%
Participation: 30%

AP/HIST 4511 6.0A: Themes in Canadian Social and Cultural History

THIS COURSE WILL BE TAUGHT SYNCHRONOUSLY, MAINLY VIA ZOOM MEETINGS

Course Director:  J. Chartrand, jtchar12@yorku.ca

Course Calendar Description: This course focuses upon such themes as social change, the formation of new social and economic groups, and the development of social institutions and patterns of thought. Note: Priority is given to History or Canadian Studies Honours majors and minors who have successfully completed at least 84 credits. Prerequisites: AP/HIST 1050 6.00 or AP/HIST 1086 6.00 or AP/HIST 2500 6.00 or AP/CDNS 2200 6.00 and AP/HIST 3531 6.00 or AP/HIST 3533 6.00 or AP/HIST 3535 6.00 or AP/HIST 3546 6.00 or AP/HIST 3555 6.00 or AP/HIST 3580 6.00 or AP/HIST 3581 6.00 or AP/HIST 3582 6.00 or AP/HIST 3591 6.00 or AP/HIST 3838 6.00 or AP/HIST 3850 6.00 or AP/SOSC 3210 6.00 or departmental permission.

Tentative Grade Breakdown/Overview of Assessment: TBA

AP/HIST 4581 6.0A: Worry and Wonder: Jewish Politics, Society and Religion in Canada

Course Director:  D. Koffman, koffman@yorku.ca

THIS COURSE WILL BE TAUGHT REMOTELY, WITH A MIX OF SYNCHRONOUS AND ASYNCHRONOUS LEARNING

[DOWNLOAD SYLLABUS]

Course Calendar Description:  This public history seminar explores the origins, development and paradoxes of the Canadian Jewish community from its inception in the 18th century to the present. It pays particular attention to the complexities of immigration, relationships between Jews and non-Jews, inspiration and anxiety about religious change, the Holocaust, Zionism & the State of Israel in public consciousness, and the puzzles and tensions of balancing tradition and modernity. Students will learn to conduct original archival research on topics of their own choosing, and their final papers, podcasts, videos or exhibitions will be published on the Ontario Jewish Archives website. No prior knowledge of Jewish history or Canadian history required. Course credit exclusions: AP/HIST 3555 6.00 Prior TO FALL 2009: Course credit exclusion: AS/HIST 3555 6.00. Note: Priority is given to History Honours majors and minors who have successfully completed at least 84 credits.

What You Will LearnThis course will outline the dynamic, ever-changing Canadian Jewish experience from the colonial era orbit, through the turn of the digital age - some 250 years. It explores the great diversity of Canadian Jewry: its variety in ethnicity, class and religious practice, its regional variations in small towns, farms, factory & mining towns, and in roaring cities, coast to coast. The course emphasizes the ruptures and wonders of mass migration, religious and political tensions among Canadian Jews from the 1940s through the 1980s, and the ways in which Jews negotiated relationships with non-Jews in Canada, as well as its politics, its landscape, its race relations, its religious spheres, and eventually, its embrace of multiculturalism. It will touch on Canadian Jewry’s relations with the State of Israel, anti-Semitism, and the political, economic and cultural contributions Jews have made to Canadian life, always placing the Canadian Jewish experience in the broader context of global Jewish life.

Delivery of Course Content: Please see above syllabus for specific details.

Tentative Grade Breakdown/Overview of Assessment: Please see above syllabus for specific details.

 

 

AP/HIST 4699 6.0A: Selected Topics in US History

Course Director:  Y. Takai, ytakai@glendon.yorku.ca

Course Calendar Description: Research seminar on selected topics in US history. Topics vary from year to year. Please consult the History supplemental calendar for more details. This course is restricted to History Honours majors and minors who have successfully completed at least 84 credits. Prerequisites: AP/HIST 2600 6.00 or AP/HIST 3601 6.00 or AP/HIST 3602 6.00 or AP/HIST 3610 6.00 or AP/HIST 3622 3.00 or AP/HIST 3625 3.00 or AP/HIST 3692 6.00 or AP/HUMA 2325 6.00 or departmental permission.

Tentative Grade Breakdown/Overview of Assessment: TBA

 

AP/HIST 4765 6.0A: Rethinking Gender in East Asian History

Course Director:  J. Kim, 706 Kaneff Tower , (416)736-2100 x30402, jkim@yorku.ca

Course Calendar Description: Examines gender roles in pre-modern and modern China, Korea and Japan. It focuses on women: their places in the family and society, their relationships with one another and men, and the evolution of ideas about gender. Note: Priority is given to History or East Asian Studies Honours majors and minors who have successfully completed at least 84 credits. Prerequisites: AP/HIST 2710 6.00 or AP/HIST 3760 6.00 or AP/HIST 3766 3.00 or AP/HIST 3770 6.00 or AP/HIST 3775 3.00 or AP/HUMA 2420 9.00 or AP/HUMA 2430 9.00 or AP/HUMA 2435 9.00 or AP/HUMA 3500 6.00 or AP/HUMA 3505 3.00 or AP/HUMA 3506 3.00 or AP/HUMA 3510 6.00 or departmental permission.

Tentative Grade Breakdown/Overview of Assessment: TBA

AP/HIST 4791 6.0A: Baghdad in the Middle Ages, 762-1300

Course Director:  T. Abdullah, athabit@yorku.ca

Course Calendar Description: This seminar focuses on the history of medieval Baghdad from its establishment as the capital of the Islamic Caliphate in 762 to its destruction in 1258 and subsequent decline. Political, economic, social and cultural developments will receive equal treatment. This course is restricted to History Honours majors and minors who have successfully completed at least 84 credits. Prerequisites: AP/HIST 2790 6.00 or AP/HIST 3791 6.00. Course credit exclusions: None. PRIOR TO FALL 2009: Course credit exclusion: AS/HIST 4791 6.00.

Tentative Grade Breakdown/Overview of Assessment: TBA

AP/HIST 4830 6.0A: In Slavery and Freedom: Blacks in the Americas

Course Director:  M. Johnson, johnsonm@yorku.ca

Course Calendar Description: Examines and compares the responses of Africans and their descendants to the experiences of enslavement, racism, colonialism and imperialism from the 15th century to the 20th century and analyses the impact of the African presence on western 'civilization'. Note: Priority is given to History Honours majors and minors who have successfully completed at least 84 credits.

Tentative Grade Breakdown/Overview of Assessment: TBA

AP/HIST 4840 6.0A: Public History

Course Director: G. Fernandes, pchp@yorku.ca

[DOWNLOAD SYLLABUS]

Course Calendar Description: This course examines the forms, goals, and practices of making history in museums, archives, historic sites, and other institutions of public history. It enables students to learn the meaning and methods in the production of memory and introduces them to the practical skills for the public presentation of historical knowledge. The course combines analytical study with a part-time placement in a public-history site. Course credit exclusion: GL/HIST 4310 6.0 Note: Priority is given to History Honours Majors and Minors who have successfully completed at least 84 credits.

This course is required for completion of the History department’s cross-disciplinary undergraduate Certificate in Public History: https://history.laps.yorku.ca/public-history-certificate/

Tentative Grade Breakdown/Overview of Assessment:  Please see syllabus for details.

AP/HIST 4990 3.0A (F), AP/HIST 4990 3.0M (W), AP/HIST 4990 6.0A: Supervised Reading and Research

This course is normally open only to majors of exceptional ability (defined as a B+ or higher average in History) with the permission of the Chair or Director of Undergraduate Studies. Students may take no more than six credits under this course rubric.

To apply for permission to do History 4990, students must submit a formal application to the Director of Undergraduate Studies, normally at the beginning of Term. Application forms (available in Vari Hall 2140) require: a brief course description and rationale; a proposed evaluation breakdown (at least 60% of the final grade must be based on written work); a list of relevant History courses completed and in-progress; a representative bibliography (with a minimum of 20 titles listed in standard academic format); and the name and signature of the supervisor (who must normally be full-time faculty in the Department of History). Students are responsible for finding Department members willing to serve as supervisor.

The Chair or Director of Undergraduate Studies must be satisfied that the subject of History 4990 is demonstrably distinct and separate from that of any other course taken by the student. History 4990 may be supervised by the instructor in another of the student’s courses.

The detailed programme of study will be determined by the student and the supervisor. Students are expected to prepare a substantial amount of written work. The student’s final grade will be based primarily (at least 60%) on the assessment of the written work by the course.

Normally, in any one year, no instructor may supervise more than a total of three courses under the rubrics of AP/HIST 4000 6.0 (Honours Essay), AP/HIST 4990 6.0 (Supervised Reading and Research), or AP/HIST 3990 6.0 (Supervised Reading and Research).

  • Students may take directed reading courses only after having successfully completed (passed)
  • 24 credits in the Faculty of Liberal Arts & Professional Studies.
  • The maximum permissible number of directed reading courses depends on a student’s program type. Students in Honours BA programs may take 24 such credits; students in a BA program may take 18 such credits.
  • Within their last 30 credits, students may take a maximum of 12 credits in directed reading courses.
  • Students may take a maximum of 12 credits of directed reading courses with the same faculty member.

AP/HIST 4991 3.0A (F), AP/HIST 4991 3.0M (W), AP/HIST 4991 6.0A - Advanced Seminar in History

Fourth-year students who have an average in their major of B+ or better may be allowed to register in some 5000-level courses in the Graduate Programme in History. As with 4000-level courses, admission is at the course director’s discretion. Undergraduates in such courses will have the same workload as their graduate classmates.

The History Department will record the enrolment as AP/HIST4991 6.0/3.0, Advanced Seminar in History, on the student’s transcript, and it will count as a 4000-level seminar. On request, the department will attest, on letterhead, that History 4991 is a graduate-level course. For further information and permission to enrol, see the Director of Undergraduate Studies.